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Chemical reactions

Chemical reactions: how they break and form bonds between atoms. Balanced reactions, reversibility, and equilibrium.

Chemical reactions introduction

Reactants and products in reversible and irreversible chemical reactions.

Chemical bonds

Chemical bonds hold molecules together and create temporary connections that are essential to life. Types of chemical bonds including covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds and London dispersion forces.

Intermolecular forces

Different types of intermolecular forces (forces between molecules).

Electronegativity and bonding

Electronegativity differences in bonding using the Pauling scale. Classifying bonds as covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.


Electronegativity is a measure of an atom's ability to attract shared electrons to itself. On the periodic table, electronegativity generally increases as you move from left to right across a period a

Covalent bonds

Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. Electron pairs shared between atoms of equal or very similar electronegativity constitute a nonpolar covalent bond (e.g., H–H or C–H

Ionic bonds

Ionic bonds result from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, which form when valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another.